Chapter 43.

Longevity

1. O Sage, you have dealt with combinations for wealth and poverty. Kindly detail methods of ascertaining the life span of human beings; Methods of ascertaining longevity.

2-3. O Brahmin, for the benefit of mankind I narrate methods of ascertaining longevity, as knowing longevity is difficult even for gods. Many exponents have laid down various methods of longevity calculations. Following is the summary of such schools of thought.

4-8. PINDAYU:
The planets contribute longevity according to their being in exaltation or debilitation, and also based on their strengths and weaknesses and positions in Aswini etc. and in the various signs. First of all Pindayu, based on the planetary positions. O Brahmin, listen to what I say, with single mindedness. 19, 25, 15, 12, 15, 21, and 20 are the number of years contributed by the planets from the Sun etc. when in (deep) exaltation. These are half of the above in (deep) fall, and if the planets are in between exaltation and fall, rule of three process should be used. Deduct the actual position of the planet from its deep exaltation point. If the product is less than 6 signs, deduct it again from 12 signs. The product concerned be multiplied by the number of years allotted to the planet and divided by 12 to get the planet's actual contribution.

9. RECTIFICATIONS:
Excepting Venus and Saturn, the contributions made by others should be halved, if they are eclipsed, by the Sun. One third should be reduced if the planet is in its inimical sign. This does not apply to the one in retrogression (see vakra charam).

10-11. DEDUCTIONS FOR PLANETS IN VISIBLE HALF:
Full, half, one-third, one-fourth, one-fifth, and one-sixth are the deductions of contributions made by malefics placed in the visisble half of the zodiac. Benefics in such cases lose only half of what malefics lose. Should there be more than one planet in a house, the deduction due to the strongest will only prevail and not due to other planets in that particular house. Waning Moon is a benefic for this purpose.

12-13. MALEFICS IN ASCENDANT:
In the case the ascendant is occupied by malefics, adopt the following procedure: convert the ascendant's sphuta into minutes of arc and multiply it by the years etc. contributed by the occupant and divide by 21600. The years etc. so arrived be deducted from the respective contribution which will be the net span donated by the planet. If there is benefic's aspect on the ascendant containing malefics, then the loss is only half (obtained through these calculations).

14-15. ASCENDANT'S CONTRIBUTION:
The number of years contributed by the ascendant will correspond to the number of signs it gained (form Aries) while the degree the ascendant gained in the particular sign will also correspondingly donate (i.e. 30 degree = 1 year). If the Navmasa Ascendant lord is stronger than the ascendant lord, then the contribution be computed only based on the Navamsas gained (from Aries), otherwise the computation will be for the Rasi ascendant.

16-17. NISARGAYU:
O Brahmin, now I tell you about Nisargayu 1, 2, 9, 20, 18, 20, and 50 are the years allotted to the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, the Sun, and Saturn from the period of birth.

18-19. AMSAYU:
Now about Amsay contributions by the ascendant and planets. The years correspond to the number of Navamsas counted from Aries. Multiply the longitude in question by 108. If the product exceeds 12, expunge multiples of 12 and consider the final product in Rasi, degrees etc. as years, months, etc..

20-22. The same reductions as per Pindayu apply to Amsay as well: i.e. half for a combust planet, one-third for inimical placement, and the one due for placements in the half of the zodiac counted from the 12th backwards. Some scholars suggest further corrections for Amsayu, viz. to increase three-fold the contribution of a planet in exaltation or in own house and double the contribution if the contributor is in his own Navamsa or in own decanate.
If doubling and trebling is warranted, only trebling be done. In case of reductions also, only halving is to be done if both halving and reducing a third are required. That is how the final life span of men be understood.

23. LONGEVITY FOR OTHER LIVING BEINGS:
For other living beings as well such computations be made. The said figure be multiplied by the figure corresponding to its full span of life and divided by the figure corresponding to full span of life for human beings.

24-29. FULL LIFE SPAN OF VARIOUS LIVING BEINGS:
I now tell you the full life span figures for various living beings. Gods and sages enjoy endless life span (i.e. in astronomical proportions as against ordinary mortals). The full life span of eagles, owls, parrots, crows, and snakes is one thousand years. Falcon, monkey, bear, and frog - the full span of life in these cases is 300 years. Demon's life span is full is 150 years while it is 120 years for human beings. 32 years for horses, 25 years for donkeys and camels, 24 years for oxen and buffalos, 20 years for peacocks, 16 years for goats and rams, 14 years for swans, 12 years for cuckoo, dog, and dove, 8 years for hens etc., and 7 years for birds etc. - these are full life spans for various living beings.

CHOICE OF LONGEVITY:
I have narrated 3 different methods of longevity. Listen to me about the choice among the three systems. According to the ascendant, the Sun or the Moon being stronger than the other two, Amsayu, Pindayu, or Nisargayu be respectively chosen.

32. DOUBTFUL CASES:
If 2 among the ascendants the Sun and the Moon gain strength, then longevity be worked out as per both systems and the average of both (final) be considered. If all three are equally strong, the average of the three be considered.

33-40. OTHER CLUES TO LONGEVITY:
O excellent of the Brahmins, I give you details of other methods in the matter of longevity as under: this is based on the positions of the ascendant lord, 8th lord, Saturn, the Moon, natal ascendant and Hora ascendant (Hora Lagna). These six are grouped into three groups thus: the lords of the ascendant and of the 8th on the one hand, Saturn and the Moon on the other hand, and the natal ascendant and Hora ascendant on yet the other hand. Out of a group, if the two are in movable/signs long life is denoted. One in fixed sign and the other in a dual sign will also bestow long life. One in movable sign and the other in fixed sign will give medium life. If both are in dual sign then again medium life will be obtained. Short life is denoted if one is in a movable sign as the other is in a common sign, of if both are in fixed signs. The type of life denoted by three or two groups be only considered. If the three groups denote different scales, then the one indicated by the pair of natal ascendant and Hora ascendant be only considered. In case of three different indications if the Moon is in the ascendant or the 7th, then the one indicated by Saturn-Moon pair will only come to pass.

41-44: FURTHER CLARIFICATIONS:
If long life is denoted by all the said three groups, the span is 120 years, if by two groups it is 108 years, and if only by one group it is 96 years. If medium life is arrived at by three groups, it is 80 years, by 2 groups 72 years, and by one group 64 years. If short life is denoted by the said three groups it is only 32 year, if by two groups 36 years, and by one group 40 years. These are rectified as under.

RECTIFICATIONS:
If the contributor is in the beginning of a sign, his donation will be full and it will be nil if he is at the end. For intermediary placements, rule of three process will apply. Add the longitudes of the contributors (devoid of signs) and the sum so arrived at be devided by the number of contributors. The latest product be multiplied by the number of basic years and divided by 30. The is will yield the net longevity.

47. SPECIAL RULE FOR SATURN:
Should Saturn be a contributor, the class of longevity declines. Some advocate, contrarily, an increase of class in this context. If Saturn is in own sign or in exaltation, change in class will not occur. Even if he is aspected by or conjunct only a malefic, no change occurs.

48. SPECIAL RULE FOR JUPITER:
If Jupiter is in the ascendant or in the 7th house, and be aspected by or conjunct only benefics, the class of longevity will increase.

49-50. INCREASE AND FALL IN CLASS OF LONGEVITY:
From very short life to short life, from short life to medium life, from medium life to long life and from long life to extremely long life are the increases in the classification of longevity when Jupiter warrants an increase. The reverse is true if Saturn warrants a fall in the span of life.

51. (Maitreya says): You have narrated various kinds of longevity computations. Please favor me by denoting subtle classes there of and poor long life spans.

52. (Parasara replies): These are seven-fold, viz. Balarishta, yogaristha, short, medium, long, super-natural (Divya), and illimitable.

53-54. The life span in Balarishta is 8 years, in Yogarishta 20 years; in short, medium and long lives 32, 64, and 120 years in order are the spans. Super natural life span is for 1000 years. Above this supernatural life span of 1000 years it is Amitayu or illimitable longevity which can be acquired only by Merits.

55. LIMITLESS LONGEVITY:
Should Cancer ascend with Jupiter and the Moon there in while Venus and Mercury are in angles and others are in 3rd, 6th, and 11th, the native will obtain limitless longevity.

56. SUPER-NATURAL LONGEVITY:
One having benefics in angles/trines as malefics are in 3rd, 6th, and 11th will obtain super-natural life span (one thousand years). The 8th house in this case should be one of benefic-owned signs.

57. LIVING TILL THE END OF YUGA:
One born in Cancer ascendant will live till the end of the yuga if Jupiter is in an angle and be in Gopuramsa while Venus is in a trine and be in Paaravatamsa.

58. LIVING THE LIFE SPAN OF A SAGE:
Jupiter in Simhasanamsa being in the ascendant, Saturn in Devalokamsa, and Mars in Paaravatamsa - if these are so, one will enjoy the life span as due to a sage.

59. Good yogas increase the life span and bad yogas decrease the same (as derived by mathematical means). Hence I tell you such yogas as to know of full, medium, and short span combinations.

60. If an angle contains a benefic while the ascendant lord is conjunct or in aspect to a benefic or Jupiter in particular, the native will live a full span of life.

61. Should the ascendant lord be in an angle in conjunction with or in aspect to Jupiter and Venus, full life span will result.

62. If at birth 3 planets are exalted, out of which the lords of ascendant and 8th are inclusive, as the 8th is deviod of a malefic in it, full life span will result.

63. Long life is denoted if 3 planets are in the 8th, in exaltation, own/ friendly divisions while the ascendant lord is strong.

64. If Saturn or the ascendant lord is conjunct with any exalted planet, long life will result.

65. Long life will be enjoyed if Malefics are in 3rd, 6th, and 11th while benefics are in angles.

66. If the 6th, 7th, and 8th are occupied by benefics while malefics are in 3rd and 11th, full life span will follow the birth.

67. If the 8th lord is friendly to the Sun while malefics are in the 6th and 12th as the ascendant lord is in an angle, the native will live the full span of life.

68. O excellent of the Brahmins, if a malefic is in the 8th while the 10th lord is exalted, one will be long-lived.

69. Long life will follow if a dual sign ascend at birth while its lord is in an angle or in exaltation or in a trine.

70. Should a common sign ascend while two malefics are in an angle with reference to strong ascendant lord, long life is indicated.

71-73. The stronger among the ascendant lord and the 8th lord if in an angle will confer long life and if in Panaphara (2nd, 5th, 8th, or 11th) medium life. If the said planet be in Apoklima (3rd, 6th, 9th, or 12th) short life will come to pass. According to the ascendant lord being friendly, neutral, or inimical to the Sun, long, medium, or short life will result.

74. Should Mars and the 3rd lord, or the 8th lord and Saturn be combust or (two of either pair) be conjunct malefics or aspected by malefics, there will be short life.

75. If the ascendant lord is in the 6th, 8th, or 12th in the company of malefics and be devoid of conjunction/aspect of a benefic, short life will come to pass.

76. If malefics are in angles devoid of conjunction or aspect of benefics while the ascendant lord is not strong, only short life will result.

77. O excellent of Brahmins, if the 12th and 2nd are occupied by malefics and be devoid of benefic aspect or company, the native will be short-lived.

78. If the lords of the ascendant and the 8th are bereft of dignities and strength, short life will come to pass. If they are helped by others while being so, medium life will come to pass.